An Intelligent Learning System for Unbiased Prediction of Dementia Based on Autoencoder and Adaboost Ensemble Learning
Dementia is a neurological condition that primarily affects older adults and there is still no cure or therapy available to cure it. The symptoms of dementia can appear as early as 10 years before the beginning of actual diagnosed dementia. Hence, machine learning (ML) researchers have presented several methods for early detection of dementia based on symptoms. However, these techniques suffer from two major flaws. The first issue is the bias of ML models caused by imbalanced classes in the dataset. Past research did not address this issue well and did not take preventative precautions. Different ML models were developed to illustrate this bias. To alleviate the problem of bias, we deployed a synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to balance the training process of the proposed ML model. The second issue is the poor classification accuracy of ML models, which leads to a limited clinical significance. To improve dementia prediction accuracy, we proposed an intelligent learning system that is a hybrid of an autoencoder and adaptive boost model. The autoencoder is used to extract relevant features from the feature space and the Adaboost model is deployed for the classification of dementia by using an extracted subset of features. The hyperparameters of the Adaboost model are fine-tuned using a grid search algorithm. Experimental findings reveal that the suggested learning system outperforms eleven similar systems which were proposed in the literature. Furthermore, it was also observed that the proposed learning system improves the strength of the conventional Adaboost model by 9.8% and reduces its time complexity. Lastly, the proposed learning system achieved classification accuracy of 90.23%, sensitivity of 98.00% and specificity of 96.65%.